Constitutional Design Class 9 PDF Notes – Civics Class 9 Chapter 2 Notes 2023

Constitutional Design Class 9 PDF Notes

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Constitutional Design (Civics) Class 9 PDF Notes

ClassClass 9
ChapterChapter 2
Chapter NameConstitutional Design
CategoryConstitutional Design Class 9 PDF Notes
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Constitutional Design Class 9 – Overview

Constitutional Design Class 9 Chapter 2 Notes: We noted in the previous chapter that in a democracy the rulers are not free to do what they like. There are certain basic rules that the citizens and the government have to follow All such rules together are called constitutions. As the supreme law of the country, the constitution determines the rights of citizens, the powers of the government, and how the government should function.

In this chapter, we ask some basic questions about the constitutional design of democracy. Why do we need a constitution? How are the constitutions drawn up? Who designs them and in what way? What are the values that shape the constitution in democratic states? Once a constitution is accepted. can we make changes later as required by the changing conditions?

One recent instance of designing a constitution for a democratic state is that of South Africa. We begin this chapter by looking at what happened there and how the South Africans went about the task of designing their constitution. Then we turn to how the Indian Constitution was made. What its foundational values are, and how does it provide a good framework for the conduct of citizens’ life and that of the government.

Democratic Constitution In South Africa

Constitutional Design Class 9 Notes: “I have fought against white domination and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal that I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs are, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.”

This was Nelson Mandela, being tried for treason by the white South African government. He and seven other leaders were sentenced to life imprisonment in 1964 for daring to oppose the apartheid regime in his country. He spent the next 28 years in South Africa’s most dreaded prison, Robben Island.

Struggle Against Apartheid

Apartheid was the name of a system of racial discrimination unique to South Africa. The white Europeans imposed this system on South Africa. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the trading companies from Europe occupied it with arms and force, in the way they occupied India. But unlike in India, a large number of ‘whites’ had settled in South Africa and became the local rulers. The system of apartheid divided the people and labeled them on the basis of their skin color. The native people of South Africa are black in color. They made up about three-fourths of the population and were called blacks’. Besides these two groups, there were people of mixed races who were called ‘colored’ and people who migrated from India. The white rulers treated all non-whites as inferiors. The non-whites did not have voting rights. The apartheid system was particularly oppressive for the blacks. They were forbidden from living in white areas. They could work in white areas only if they had a permit. Trains, buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools, and colleges. libraries, cinema halls, theatres, beaches, Swimming pools, READ THE FULL Chapter – CLICK HERE

Constitutional Design Class 9 PDF Notes

  • Apartheid: The official policy of racial separation and ill-treatment of blacks followed by the government of South Africa between 1948 and 1989.
  • Clause: A distinct section of a document.
  • Constituent Assembly: An assembly of people’s representatives that writes a constitution for a country.
  • Constitution: Supreme law of a country, containing fundamental rules governing the politics and society in a country.
  • Constitutional amendment: A change in the constitution made by the supreme legislative body in a country.
  • Draft: A preliminary version of a legal document.
  • Philosophy: The most fundamental principles underlying one’s thoughts and actions.
  • Preamble: An introductory statement in a constitution that states the reasons and guiding values of the constitution.
  • Treason: The offense of attempting to overthrow the government of the state to which the offender owes allegiance.
  • Tryst: A meeting or meeting place that has been agreed upon.

CBSE Class 09 Social Science

Revision Notes



Democratic Constitution in South Africa

  • Nelson Mandela, the South African leader of the African National Congress, fought a long battle against Apartheid.
  • Imprisoned for 28 years (1964-1992) emerged as the First President of the Republic of South Africa.
  • People struggled against the horrible discrimination practiced against them by the white minority rulers.
  • Apartheid was finally defeated in 1994 and a new constitution was made in 1996.
  • Black leaders appealed to fellow blacks to forgive white.
  • The remarkable constitution, forgetting past sufferings, and seeking the cooperation of all the races make S. Africa based on equality, democratic values, and social justice.

Do We Need a Constitution?

  • Every country drafts its own constitution.
  • A constitution of a nation is the set of written laws accepted by people living together in a country.
  • It generates trust and coordination.
  • It specifies how a government should be constituted.
  • It lays down limits on the powers of the government.
  • It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society.

Making of the Indian Constitution

  • The process began during the national struggle for freedom.
  • First draft 1928, then 1931. Moti Lal Nehru and 8 leaders demanded in the draft a Universal adult franchise, social justice, right to freedom, and liberty.
  • Participation in Provincial Legislatures helped Indians in framing their constitution.
  • Leaders were inspired by the French Revolution, the British parliamentary system, and the Bill of Rights of us.
  • They also learned what the British were denying Indian citizens.

The Constituent Assembly

  • Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946.
  • Dr. B. R. Ambedkar was appointed chairman of the drafting committee.
  • Constitution adopted on 26 November 1949, and enacted on 26 January 1950, when India became a republic.
  • The Constitution reflects the best minds of the country. 1Its members represented mini-India.

Constitutional Design Class 9 Full Notes

 Constitution

  • A constitution is a written document containing a set of fundamental rules on the basis of which the government functions.
  • It determines the working of the Centre and the States and their relationship with each other as well as with the citizens. 

 Need of a Constitution

  • Determines the composition of the government and powers of various organs of the government. 
  • Formulate guidelines that oversee decision-making within different government institutions and organisations.
  • Lays down the broad principles on which the foundation of the country is based. 
  • It sets the rules according to which a country is governed.
  • It lays down the rules for protecting the interests of the minorities and preventing them from domination by the majority.
  • It stipulates the rules for preventing the misuse of power by political leaders.
  • It ensures certain rights to the citizens and protects their freedom.

 Constituent Assembly

An assembly of the elected delegates was entrusted with the task of drafting the Constitution of  India. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly. 

  • Later, when the country was divided into India and Pakistan, the Constituent Assembly also got divided.
  • At the beginning, the assembly decided on some basic principles. Then a Drafting Committee was formed for giving the final shape to the Constitution. Its chairman was Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.

 Preamble to Our Constitution

  • It contains the philosophy of our constitution. It lays importance on the following principles:
  • Justice, social, economic and political.
  • Liberty of thoughts, expression, belief, faith and worship.
  • Equality of status and of opportunity.
  • Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation.

 Importance of Preamble

  • Pronounces India to be a socialist, secular, sovereign and democratic republic.
  • Visualizes social, economic and political justice for all the citizens.
  • Grants every individual the freedom of expression, thought, faith, belief, worship, etc.
  • It provides for the equality of opportunity to all the citizens and protects every individual’s dignity.
  • Encourages a sense of brotherhood among citizens.
  • Unity of the nation is the ultimate goal.

 Secularism and India as a Secular State

  • Secularism means equality of all religions and treating each religion with due respect. 
  • India is a secular state because the State has no religion of its own and treats all religions equally. 
  • People are free to practice any religion of their choice.
  • Everybody is treated equally irrespective of his caste, colour, creed, social and economic background, etc.
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