The curriculum for Indian students in Class 12 includes a number of science subjects and biology is one of them. Unlike other subjects, biology includes real-world applications in almost every chapter which is why it’s unmatched regarding the number of practicals. Unsurprisingly, biology practical books attract the attention of students across India who want to optimize their studies. Today, I’m going to check out Class 12 Biology Practical Book and lay out its contents in detail.
Attributes Of The Book: Summary
At the beginning of every experiment, the objective is listed and sometimes, it even gives hints on the techniques to apply. Like every other practical book, the book notes down the set of apparatus and specimens needed to demonstrate the matter in question. In addition, the book contains procedures to follow and everything comes in a step-by-step format. If you catch on to things quickly, you should be able to visualize what must be done in your mind by reading through the procedures.
Experiments In The Book
In case you don’t know, Class 12 Biology Practical Bol comprises over twenty practicals and they will help you prepare for the examination. Down below is a list of experiments in the book:
To study the process of osmosis using a potato osmoscope.
To study plasmolysis in epidermal cells of Tradescantia leaf.
To study the structure and distribution of stomata in the upper and lower epidermis of the leaf.
To detect the presence of excess water added to the milk by using a lactometer.
To detect the presence of starch added as an adulterant to the milk.
To dissect a given flower to study and display different whorls. Dissect anther and ovary to show the number of locules (chambers).
To study the process of pollen germination on slide while observing under the compound microscope.
To study water samples for measuring pH, and clarity M (turbidity).
To study different soil samples from different localities for their physical properties.
To study the suspended particulate matter on the leaves collected from different sites
To study the presence of living organisms in a given water sample.
To study different adaptations shown by flowers for pollination.
To study the hybridization technique.
To study the comparative rate of transpiration in upper and lower surfaces of leaf by conducting four leaf experiments.
Separation of plant (photosynthetic) pigments by paper chromatography.
To study the imbibitions using seeds or raisins.
Study of plants found in xerophytic and aquatic conditions/habitats and comment on their adaptations.
Study of T.S. of testis, T. S. of ovary, and V. S. of Blastula through permanent slides
To study the prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, widow’s peak, blood groups, and color blindness.
To identify common disease-causing organisms like Plasmodium, Entamoeba, Ascaris, and Ringworm with the help of permanent slides and or specimens. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.
To study and identify different stages of meiosis.
Study of two animals found in xeric conditions (desert) with respect to their morphological adaptations.
Study of two animals found in aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations
Study of anatropous ovule and functions of its various parts.
To study the genetic variations of traits in Drosophila melanogaster
Evaluation Scheme: Insights
Different examination boards ( ICSE, CBSE , etc) have different ways of evaluating their practical examination. In the case of CBSE, they divide practicals into six sections for a total of thirty marks.
Major experiment : The first part (five marks) is one major project where you must conduct a substantial experiment from the syllabus. The experiment is usually complex and requires you to apply a broad range of laboratory skills as well as theoretical knowledge.
Minor experiment : In the second part (four marks), you have to set up a minor experiment that tests your understanding of basic and fundamental concepts.
Slide preparation : For the third part (five marks), the examiner will test your slide preparation skills and demand that you create microscope slides for the observation of microscopic structures.
Spotting : As the third part (seven marks), spotting is straightforward and all you have to do is to identify and label specimens/organisms.
Practical record plus viva voce : Regarding the fourth part (four marks), you must note down core matters about the experiment such as procedures, observations, …. Here, the examiner is going to determine your ability to explain and discuss the experiments.
Project record plus viva voce : Lastly, you need to work on a research project in which you will document items like the project’s objectives, methodology, data collection… To earn the five mark of the final part, you have to answer questions properly and demonstrate your understanding of the research process.
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